Constructores y destructores

Constructor

void __construct ([ mixed $args = "" [, $... ]] )

PHP 5 permite a los desarrolladores declarar métodos constructores para las clases. Aquellas que tengan un método constructor lo invocarán en cada nuevo objeto creado, lo que lo hace idóneo para cualquier inicialización que el objeto pueda necesitar antes de ser usado.

Nota: Los constructores padres no son llamados implícitamente si la clase hija define un constructor. Para ejecutar un constructor padre, se requiere invocar a parent::__construct() desde el constructor hijo. Si el hijo no define un constructor, entonces se puede heredar de la clase madre como un método de clase normal (si no fue declarada como privada).

Ejemplo #1 Utilización de nuevos constructores unificados

<?php
class BaseClass {
   function 
__construct() {
       print 
"En el constructor BaseClass\n";
   }
}

class 
SubClass extends BaseClass {
   function 
__construct() {
       
parent::__construct();
       print 
"En el constructor SubClass\n";
   }
}

class 
OtherSubClass extends BaseClass {
    
// heredando el constructor BaseClass
}

// En el constructor BaseClass
$obj = new BaseClass();

// En el constructor BaseClass
// En el constructor SubClass
$obj = new SubClass();

// En el constructor BaseClass
$obj = new OtherSubClass();
?>

Por motivos de retrocompatibilidad con PHP 3 y PHP 4, si PHP no puede encontrar una función __construct() de una clase dada, se buscará la función constructora del estilo antiguo, por el nombre de la clase. Efectivamente, esto significa que en el único caso en el que se tendría compatibilidad es si la clase tiene un método llamado __construct() que fuese utilizado para diferentes semáticas.

Advertencia

Los constructores del estilo antiguo están OBSOLETOS en PHP 7.0, por lo que serán eliminados en una futura versión. Se debería utilizar siempre __construct() en código nuevo.

A diferencia con otros métodos, PHP no generará un mensaje de error a nivel de E_STRICT cuando __construct() es sobrescrito con diferentes parámetros que los métodos padre __construct() tienen.

A partir de PHP 5.3.3, los métodos con el mismo nombre que el último elemento de una clase en un nombre de espacios no serán más tratados como un constructor. Este cambio no afecta a clases sin espacio de nombres.

Ejemplo #2 Constructores en clases pertenecientes a un nombre de espacios

<?php
namespace Foo;
class 
Bar {
    public function 
Bar() {
        
// Tratado como constructor en PHP 5.3.0 - 5.3.2
        // Tratado como método regular a partir de PHP 5.3.3
    
}
}
?>

Destructor

void __destruct ( void )

PHP 5 introduce un concepto de destructor similar al de otros lenguajes orientados a objetos, tal como C++. El método destructor será llamado tan pronto como no hayan otras referencias a un objeto determinado, o en cualquier otra circunstancia de finalización.

Ejemplo #3 Ejemplo de Destructor

<?php
class MyDestructableClass {
   function 
__construct() {
       print 
"En el constructor\n";
       
$this->name "MyDestructableClass";
   }

   function 
__destruct() {
       print 
"Destruyendo " $this->name "\n";
   }
}

$obj = new MyDestructableClass();
?>

Como los constructores, los destructores padre no serán llamados implícitamente por el motor. Para ejecutar un destructor padre, se deberá llamar explícitamente a parent::__destruct() en el interior del destructor. También como los constructores, una clase child puede heredar el destructor de los padres si no implementa uno propio.

El destructor será invocado aún si la ejecución del script es detenida usando exit(). Llamar a exit() en un destructor evitará que se ejecuten las rutinas restantes de finalización.

Nota:

Los destructores invocados durante la finalización del script tienen los headers HTTP ya enviados. El directorio de trabajo en la fase de finalización del script puede ser diferente con algunos SAPIs (por ej., Apache).

Nota:

Intentar lanzar una excepción desde un destructor (invocado en la finalización del script) causa un error fatal.

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 53 notes

up
296
rayro at gmx dot de
7 years ago
the easiest way to use and understand multiple constructors:

<?php
class A
{
    function
__construct()
    {
       
$a = func_get_args();
       
$i = func_num_args();
        if (
method_exists($this,$f='__construct'.$i)) {
           
call_user_func_array(array($this,$f),$a);
        }
    }
   
    function
__construct1($a1)
    {
        echo(
'__construct with 1 param called: '.$a1.PHP_EOL);
    }
   
    function
__construct2($a1,$a2)
    {
        echo(
'__construct with 2 params called: '.$a1.','.$a2.PHP_EOL);
    }
   
    function
__construct3($a1,$a2,$a3)
    {
        echo(
'__construct with 3 params called: '.$a1.','.$a2.','.$a3.PHP_EOL);
    }
}
$o = new A('sheep');
$o = new A('sheep','cat');
$o = new A('sheep','cat','dog');

// results:
// __construct with 1 param called: sheep
// __construct with 2 params called: sheep,cat
// __construct with 3 params called: sheep,cat,dog
?>
up
66
david dot scourfield at llynfi dot co dot uk
6 years ago
Be aware of potential memory leaks caused by circular references within objects.  The PHP manual states "[t]he destructor method will be called as soon as all references to a particular object are removed" and this is precisely true: if two objects reference each other (or even if one object has a field that points to itself as in $this->foo = $this) then this reference will prevent the destructor being called even when there are no other references to the object at all.  The programmer can no longer access the objects, but they still stay in memory.

Consider the following example:

<?php

header
("Content-type: text/plain");

class
Foo {
   
   
/**
     * An indentifier
     * @var string
     */
   
private $name;
   
/**
     * A reference to another Foo object
     * @var Foo
     */
   
private $link;

    public function
__construct($name) {
       
$this->name = $name;
    }

    public function
setLink(Foo $link){
       
$this->link = $link;
    }

    public function
__destruct() {
        echo
'Destroying: ', $this->name, PHP_EOL;
    }
}

// create two Foo objects:
$foo = new Foo('Foo 1');
$bar = new Foo('Foo 2');

// make them point to each other
$foo->setLink($bar);
$bar->setLink($foo);

// destroy the global references to them
$foo = null;
$bar = null;

// we now have no way to access Foo 1 or Foo 2, so they OUGHT to be __destruct()ed
// but they are not, so we get a memory leak as they are still in memory.
//
// Uncomment the next line to see the difference when explicitly calling the GC:
// gc_collect_cycles();
//
// see also: http://www.php.net/manual/en/features.gc.php
//

// create two more Foo objects, but DO NOT set their internal Foo references
// so nothing except the vars $foo and $bar point to them:
$foo = new Foo('Foo 3');
$bar = new Foo('Foo 4');

// destroy the global references to them
$foo = null;
$bar = null;

// we now have no way to access Foo 3 or Foo 4 and as there are no more references
// to them anywhere, their __destruct() methods are automatically called here,
// BEFORE the next line is executed:

echo 'End of script', PHP_EOL;

?>

This will output:

Destroying: Foo 3
Destroying: Foo 4
End of script
Destroying: Foo 1
Destroying: Foo 2

But if we uncomment the gc_collect_cycles(); function call in the middle of the script, we get:

Destroying: Foo 2
Destroying: Foo 1
Destroying: Foo 3
Destroying: Foo 4
End of script

As may be desired.

NOTE: calling gc_collect_cycles() does have a speed overhead, so only use it if you feel you need to.
up
7
domger at freenet dot de
4 months ago
The __destruct magic method must be public.

public function __destruct()
{
    ;
}

The method will automatically be called externally to the instance.  Declaring __destruct as protected or private will result in a warning and the magic method will not be called.

Note: In PHP 5.3.10 i saw strange side effects while some Destructors were declared as protected.
up
29
nerdystudmuffin at gmail dot com
9 years ago
Correction to the previous poster about non public constructors. If I wanted to implement Singleton design pattern where I would only want one instance of the class I would want to prevent instantiation of the class from outside of the class by making the constructor private. An example follows:

class Foo {

  private static $instance;

  private __construct() {
    // Do stuff
  }

  public static getInstance() {

    if (!isset(self::$instance)) {
      $c = __CLASS__;
      $instance = new $c;
    }

    return self::$instance;
  }

  public function sayHello() {
    echo "Hello World!!";
  }

}

$bar = Foo::getInstance();

// Prints 'Hello World' on the screen.
$bar -> sayHello();
up
9
Per Persson
5 years ago
As of PHP 5.3.10 destructors are not run on shutdown caused by fatal errors.

For example:
<?php
class Logger
{
    protected
$rows = array();

    public function
__destruct()
    {
       
$this->save();
    }

    public function
log($row)
    {
       
$this->rows[] = $row;
    }

    public function
save()
    {
        echo
'<ul>';
        foreach (
$this->rows as $row)
        {
            echo
'<li>', $row, '</li>';
        }
        echo
'</ul>';
    }
}

$logger = new Logger;
$logger->log('Before');

$nonset->foo();

$logger->log('After');
?>

Without the $nonset->foo(); line, Before and After will both be printed, but with the line neither will be printed.

One can however register the destructor or another method as a shutdown function:
<?php
class Logger
{
    protected
$rows = array();

    public function
__construct()
    {
       
register_shutdown_function(array($this, '__destruct'));
    }
   
    public function
__destruct()
    {
       
$this->save();
    }
   
    public function
log($row)
    {
       
$this->rows[] = $row;
    }
   
    public function
save()
    {
        echo
'<ul>';
        foreach (
$this->rows as $row)
        {
            echo
'<li>', $row, '</li>';
        }
        echo
'</ul>';
    }
}

$logger = new Logger;
$logger->log('Before');

$nonset->foo();

$logger->log('After');
?>
Now Before will be printed, but not After, so you can see that a shutdown occurred after Before.
up
4
apfelsaft
12 years ago
at the end of a script all remaining objects aren't in fact destructed. it is only their __destruct() method, which will be called. the objects still exist after that.

so, if your database connection object has no __destruct() or at least it doesn't disconnects the database, it will still work.

in general, there is no need to disconnect the database (especially for persistent connections).
up
7
Anonymous
9 years ago
USE PARENT::CONSTRUCT() to exploit POLYMORPHISM POWERS

Since we are still in the __construct and __destruct section, alot of emphasis has been on __destruct - which I know nothing about. But I would like to show the power of parent::__construct for use with PHP's OOP polymorphic behavior (you'll see what this is very quickly).

In my example, I have created a fairly robust base class that does everything that all subclasses need to do. Here's the base class def.

<?php

/*
* Animal.php
*
* This class holds all data, and defines all functions that all
* subclass extensions need to use.
*
*/
abstract class Animal
{
  public
$type;
  public
$name;
  public
$sound;

 
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&nNoDairly rCd">(aublic ;

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;

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;

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    public funinNword">,   "Y   pu> _tld>sham6blic function ;

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) {>  'breakn class="keyword">(  'yesn class="keyword">(;

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;

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    public funinNword">, ;

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) {>  'breakn class="keyword">(  'yesn class="keyword">(;

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$name(($name;

 a   public fun="php_reportis isp;
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 "p;       $this $this($thisublispan cltINITIALIZE "data1 ult">$name;

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 "obj1     }
;

&nMyC}  "Hello class="keyword">,   "World! class="keyword">, $thisublispan cltINSTANTIATE MyC};

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;

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$this
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$bar -&_ther ::n="php_rbotice: U66288">
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$name;

 $xclass="keyword">, $name;

 $tlass="keyworprn classphp_reportis portis span>;

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;

 "p;       $this $this, $name;

 "p;       $this $this, $name;

 createXYaublic
;

 $xclass="keyword">, pri onult">$name;

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;

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$bar -&_ther ::n="php_rbotice: U55799">
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sbspyancexpresb }< ial s aciopose_blanult">$name;
$name;
;
> $name;

 a   public fun="php_reportis isp; pri=hp_reportis portis onult">$name
;
$name;

 "p;       $this> $this$thispraionult">$name$name;
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;
$name;
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$name;
;
> $name;

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;
able (ort'Some Sctt>< Vd6>able Vdlue'cial sin exelan>i=hp_reportis portis $name;

 "p;       $this $thisprnbclass for ustribr /$name$name;
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;
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, , <$this>prn classp"keyword">;

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$bar -&_ther ::n="php_rbotice: U63590decon&vote=up" title="Vote up!" 69663590de"108598">
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$bar -&_ther ::n="php_rbotice: U79986">
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;

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$name;
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;

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$name$name;
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$name;
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;

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$name$name;
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$name$name;
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;

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;

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$name$name;
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;

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;
$name$name;
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;

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$name;

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;

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;

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;

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$name$namep"keyword">;

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